It would be premature and naïve to associate these statements about rewards with other New Testament teaching on the subject without careful comparison of the individual contexts. One suggestion (although it cannot be proven) is that 1 John was somewhere designated *Iwannou tou parqenou (Iwannou tou parqenou, “[The Epistle] of John the Virgin”) and this was misread or corrupted into *Iwannou tou Parqou (Iwannou tous Parqous, “[The Epistle] of John to the Parthians”).28. He obviously felt no need either to identify himself or invoke his position in the early church in order to strengthen his authority. What Happened Next Changed Her Life, Biblica Romania Creates Unique Gift for Bucharest’s 550th Birthday. [10] Many have seen in this word an allusion to the resurrection of Christ. VI (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, reprint, 1969), 1John, p. 24. It may be assumed, therefore, that 1 John was sent to the churches of the province of Asia (see map No. Paul described the deeds of the wicked as the "works of darkness." The human body, which is matter, is therefore evil. The author is John son of Zebedee (see Mk 1:19–20)—the apostle and the author of the Gospel of John and Revelation (see Introductions to both books: Author). "[2] This complexity has led to different opinions as to how it should be translated. Edited by J. H. Charlesworth. Hoffman, T. A. Our refutation of C. H. Dodd in the introduction was based, not upon the error of supposing a different use of [Greek: logos] in 1John from that of the gospel prologue, but upon the fact that the idea is exactly the same. This verse is parenthetical, but it regards the very thing in John's mind from the first verse, namely, the Holy One, the same who in the beginning was "with God" and "was God" (John 1:1), called in the gospel "the Word" and here "the Word of life" (1 John 1:1). The English theologian and historian Bede, writing in the early eighth century a.d., said in the prologue to his exposition of the catholic epistles that the Greek bishop Athanasius of Alexander believed 1 John to have been written to the Parthians. Roberts pointed out that John's teaching here "implies that only the sinless can have fellowship with a sinless God," adding that this involves a contradiction between our own "admitted sinfulness and the affirmation that we do have fellowship with God (1 John 1:3). The earliest confirmed use of 1 John was in the Roman province of Asia (in modern Turkey), where Ephesus was located. "To say that we have not sinned is not just to tell a deliberate lie, or to be self-deceived, but actually to accuse God of lying, to make him a liar."[42]. This life manifested ... Moffatt was doubtless correct in capitalizing "Life" in both verses. Verse 1. 26 For further historical details see Brown, The Epistles of John, 772-74. Some have pointed out that the need for John's teaching here resulted from the most audacious immorality advocated, indulged, and rationalized by heretics such as Valentinus. Two separate journeys of John to Ephesus are described, filled with various miraculous events such as the collapse of the Temple of Artemis (one of the seven wonders of the ancient world; the temple is mentioned in Acts 19:27). Presumably those who have departed from the apostolic teaching about Jesus (2:18-19) would not share this “fellowship.” (There will be more to say about the views of the opponents later.). Additional Bibliography: Background and Setting of the Johannine Letters. In 2 John 8-9 the Christians to whom the author is writing are warned against adopting the teaching of the opponents. He justified the error in the gospel on the basis that other New Testament passages fully cover the question anyway and that the additional testimony was unnecessary; and he could have justified the error here in the same way. 1983-1999. Sweet Company, 1968), p. 20. 2 John, at least, appears to be related to the controversy which has split the community to which the author of 1 John is writing. "[33] Roberts resolved the "contradiction" in the considerations of: (1) Christ's propitiation for our sins; (2) the cleansing action in view in this verse; and (3) the intercession on our behalf of Jesus Christ our advocate. Moreover, "the truth" or "the word" in John's view was not some indefinite and nebulous goal pursued by the Christians seeking to know it; it was something which they already knew, already had, already walked in, already obeyed. This has been misunderstood as meaning "all of our sins publicly"; but no such meaning is in it. If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us. “A Non-polemical Reading of 1 John: Sin, Christology and the Limits of Johannine Community.” Tyndale Bulletin 49 (1998): 253-76. Here the error is that of claiming inherent sinlessness, perfection, the absence of any need of cleansing through the blood of Christ. 1 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched--this we proclaim concerning the Word of life. If taken at face value, however, they make a significant contribution to the authority with which the author speaks. This the author wishes to prevent, so he warns the recipients against welcoming such false teachers into their homes or giving public greetings (which might be understood as tacit endorsements of the opponents’ views). Scott and others have supposed that John might also have had in mind "the Gnostic subtlety that sin was a matter of the flesh and did not touch or defile the spirit."[36]. "[28] John did not honor their heresy nor the names of any of its advocates with any identification whatever. The secessionists are seeking to win converts for their own views, even from among the community to which they formerly belonged. This is the most blatant and offensive of all the false theories. Currently, there are outcroppings of a practice among fervidly religious groups of holding confessionals in which the most sensual and reprehensible conduct is unreservedly reported openly and publicly within such groups. "Truth can be a quality of action as well as of speech."[31]. The message which we have heard from him ... Commentators have difficulty deciding on who is the antecedent of "him," since both the Father and the Son Jesus Christ were mentioned together in 1 John 1:3. But the letter itself does not indicate who they were or where they lived. The whole doctrine of Perfection requires a great deal more attention to it than is evident in current Christian literature. These repeated expressions (1 John 1:6,8,10) indicate the principal stream of the apostle's thought in this section. It is likely that this comes from personal contact the author has had with the recipients, and it cannot be ruled out that he himself is in fact a member of the Christian community to which he is writing. The apostles recounted what they had heard, seen, beheld (more intensive investigation than merely seeing), and even handled. The justice of God in allowing our participation in the benefits of that sacrifice is vindicated and proved by the manner of incorporating those to be forgiven into the spiritual body of Christ, and then justifying them, not in their own sinful identities, but as Christ and in Christ. It is a false view that construes this as meaning that God would not be just and righteous if he did not forgive us wicked sinners! Since the author of 1 John seems to build on concepts and themes found in the fourth Gospel (see 1Jn 2:7–11), it is reasonable to date the letter somewhere between a.d. 85 and 95, after the writing of the Gospel, which may have been written c. 85 (see Introduction to John: Date).

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