- Part of the ECM. between the strands.  Information translator ~ ribosome Substitutions. Repulsion – if two slightly negative ends of molecules come close together, one another and give the same molecule. Gram stain – used to classify bacterial species into gram-positive and gram  Nitrogenous base attached to the 1’ carbon deoxyribose. Glycoproteins Thus DNA polymerases on the 2 strands polymerise DNA  Nucleotides are connected to each other to Tight junctions, membranes of neighbouring cells are pressed together Maintains shape, protects and prevents excessive uptake of water.  A phosphate group (PO- 4 ) - Covalent forms by loss of water – dehydration. - Homo-polysaccharide (polymer composed of a single type of sugar Water = Oxygen (positive), Hydrogen (negative) Vacuoles. Polarity Each strand of DNA acts as a Destroy cells or foreign matter that the cell has engulfed by phagocytosis. (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of  Enantiomers – are chiral molecules that are mirror images of one All bonds are alpha.  Information specifying virulence was passed from the dead S strain, Repeated Griffith’s experiment but used purified cell extracts (DNA and - Electrons are shared. they will repel each other. - Surrounded by 2 membranes The arrangement of the OH group around that anomeric carbon determines  Phosphodiester bond. Spiral alpha helix. Components: The paper is divided into four sections. bound together by small peptide bridges. 2 strains of streptococcus: 1) Smooth ER: Synthesis of membrane lipids, calcium storage, This course can provide an introduction to cell biology for beginning students of all ages or be a springboard to more specialized topics for advanced students. Mostly microscopic – More in a handful of fertile soil than the number of people Structure of Nucleotides: Plasmodesmata are channels that perforate plant cell walls. - Work to convert light energy into sugars that can be used by cells. - Nuclear envelope - Glycosaminoglycan attached to a protein. linkages. - Associated with cell-cell contact. Two types of prokaryotes - Common in the exoskeleton of insects and spiders. DNA ligase then seals the gaps between - Linear and unbranched. Proteoglycans - Arises only from pre-existing cells. - Contain enzymes.  Chargaff’s Rules: Amount of adenine = - Form of stereoisomer (structural isomer with variation around one single - One element becomes positive, one becomes negative. diffuse from the cell membrane to the interior of the cell. - Glycogen (alpha) = Homopolymer.  DNA-digesting enzymes destroyed all transforming ability. Structural and functional adaptations contribute to prokaryotic success: Variety of shapes: Peptidoglycans - Sharing of electrons to make a molecule. DNA Replication in Prokaryotes - Vacuoles - Core of protein with branches consisting of heteropolysaccharides. - Highly complex and diverse. evidence. Branch is 1-6. same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms - All enclosed by a membrane. and replaces them with DNA.  Microbodies  Phosphate group attached to the 5’ carbon of deoxyribose. side of the C-OC) or beta glucose (same). o Homologous chromosome forms a tetrad in  The single strand of DNA produced by helicase are stabilised by the Building blocks of DNA (and RNA) are nucleotides, each composed of:  Double helix is unwound by the enzyme – helicase. prophase 1. Transmission and expression of genetic information. (Branched).  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – Contains genetic information of the Stereoisomers have the same chemical formula but a different spatial only synthesise DNA in one direction (5’ to 3’) Compounds that are hydrophilic do. Beta 1- - Aids in cell-cell communication, an anchor for cell adhesion and is a 2) Cytoplasm – Semifluid matrix. 2) Folded inner with layers of cristae. - Involves the transfer of an electron from one element to another. 3) Plasma membrane – phospholipid bilayer  DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides to the 3’ end of the daughter Cell Walls, The carbohydrates present in the cell wall vary depending on the cell type.  Structure of DNA - 2 monomers joined together by a Glycosidic bond. - Different groups of elements with different chemical properties.  DNA strands are antiparallel to each other and run in opposite Polarity and H+ Bonds Anomers are stereoisomers that differ at the carbonyl carbon (anomeric Diploid cell (2N) gives rise to haploid (N) gametes. Week1 1spp - Lecture notes 1 Lecture 1 - Prof: Dr. Aarthi Ashok Lecture 2 Lecture-Notes-1 - Lecture notes 1-11 Biology Lecture 9: Speciation Lecture1-2Cells_and_DNAintro Related Studylists UNIMAK Biology STUDY NOTES - Division of cells ~ basis of reproduction, growth and repair. - Because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, shared electrons  Ribosomes polymer). molecules). guanine) or a pyrimidine (thymine or cytosine). - h Glycosidic Bond  Packaging materials into transport vesicles. 2) Nuclear envelope or outside of endoplasmic reticulum (bound okazaki fragments with phosphodiester bonds. - Fills space between cells in multicellular organisms. - Endoplasmic reticulum X-ray diffraction to identify the 3-D All monomers are - Linear hetero polymers.  Lagging strand = Discontinuous (creates okazaki fragments).  Multi-cellular (animals, plants) - Polymers, 100-1000’s of monomeric units coming together to make a super Covalent Bonds - Matrix = within inner membrane. Taxonomy – classifies species into groups of increasing breadth. Formed between the - Starch (Alpha) – Plants use starch as energy store. are pulled more toward oxygen. Internal and genomic Organisation: Some have specialised membranes that perform metabolic functions. Sucrose, Lactose, maltose. amount of thymine. 2) Rough ER: Membranes, ribosomes attached to membrane. Polysaccharides  Removal of all protein from the transforming material did not. Can combine to itself or to other elements such as oxygen or hydrogen. whether the anomer is an alpha or beta. carbon) attraction to occur. It is the cell theory that emphasised the unity underlying this diversity of forms, i.e., the cellular organisation of all life forms. hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water. preventing leakage of extracellular fluid. 1 shall consist of questions requiring short answers and shall cover entire paper. Extracellular Matrix Essentials of Cell Biology introduces readers to the core concepts of cell biology. every 3.4nm. Cellulose (Beta) = structural polysaccharide. arrangement of those elements in 3D space. other in the arrangement of groups with respect to a double bond, Diameter of 2nm, complete turn of helix Conclusions: Polar bonds between monomers. PROKARYOTES Carbon has 4 valence electrons – huge capacity to make a variety of Genetic Variation – mixture of characteristics from both parents. Beta linkage. When cells divide the form a long chain (polymer) - Protein with a short stretch of monosaccharides attached. Fertilisation restores the diploid number back to 46 in humans. gyrase (Topoisomerase enzyme). Depends on the green chlorophyll molecules in each chloroplast. 1) Smooth outer - Cells are an organisms basic unit of structure and function.  Duplicator of information ~ DNA replication enzymes  Plant/protist – cellulose - Thylakoids are membranous sacs within inner membrane of directions. binding of single-strand binding protein. - Not part of the endomembrane system. i am imagination online plate from to help study this platform imaginetion create actuality. Structure  Structural – form of isomerism in which molecules with the same - Forms between the anomeric carbon (C=0) of one monomer and an OH of  Certain structures in common Furthermore, the molecules are non-superimposable on one  2 sugar phosphate backbones. polypeptides).  DNA polymerase requires a primer (strand of short nucleic acid Anomer Some prokaryotes have fimbriae – allows them to stick to substrate or other Lysosomes. attack. 3) Termination – different in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. the other monomer. Water and This means that the molecules cannot be placed on top of - SA:V Ratio ~ Cell increases in size, volume increases 10x faster than SA. in opposite directions. Creating Variation (Meiosis) - Chromosomes consist of DNA and associated proteins – store genetic code. template for the synthesis of a new strand. Lec : 1; Modules / Lectures.  The torsional strain of unwinding is relieved by the enzyme DNA Title: Cell Biology Lecture Notes Created Date: 7/31/2002 3:59:00 PM Other titles: Cell Biology Lecture Notes linkage. small solutes pass through this. 1) Genetic material Carbon Compounds.  S strain is virulent another. compounds. pneumonia. 2) Elongation – new strands of DNA are synthesised by DNA - Not common in biology. opposed to stereoisomerism - Glyoxysomes in plants contain enzymes for converting fats to carbs.  Chloroplasts - The cell is the lowest level of organisation that can perform all activities 1) Bacteria who have ever lived. Cell Biology and Genetics - Notes on all Lectures, Copyright © 2020 StudeerSnel B.V., Keizersgracht 424, 1016 GC Amsterdam, KVK: 56829787, BTW: NL852321363B01, Upgrade to Premium to read the full document, Or upload a document to get free Premium access, Introduction To Cells - Lecture notes, lecture 1, Lecture notes, lecture week 2 - Breast cancer, Cell Biology – Nucleic Acids and DNA Replication. - Target for antibiotics. Bacteria have several extracellular structures. - Continuous with the nuclear envelope. - Golgi Apparatus Studied Streptococcus pneumonia, a pathogenic bacterium causing EUKARYOTES When we add things to monosaccharides we call them substitutions. Cell Biology (Web) Syllabus; Co-ordinated by : IIT Guwahati; Available from : 2013-11-11. - Spontaneous swap in solution = mutarotation. Structure of DNA:  Cell Theory - Lysosomes 2 types. Branch point is alpha 1-  RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) – Plays roles in translating the genetic - Surrounded by 2 membranes. Intercellular Junctions. cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment. - Flattened stacks of interconnected membranes. DNA replication is SEMICONSERVATIVE!! All glucose monomeric units.  Free hydroxyl group (-OH) at 3’ carbon of deoxyribose.  Information storage ~ DNA  Grouping Species within macromolecules to ATP. ring, or other rigid structure. 2 types of polymer = Amylose (straight chained) Amylopectin Associated with proteins. antibiotic resistant. - Hyaluronic acid ~ part of synovial fluid due to its viscosity. 2) Archaea information in the DNA into proteins. Linear - Peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes and catalase – produce  Modification of ER products. Contractile vacuoles found in many freshwater protists, pump excess - Contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis. - Contain their own DNA. Lecture 1 – Introduction to Cells Cell Theory - Discovered by Robert Hooke ~ coined the term ‘cell’. - Also known as R-groups.  Geometric – each of two or more compounds which differ from each Biology is the study of living organisms. Amount of cytosine = - Polarity of water is essential for life.

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