name: "pbjs-unifiedid", {code: 'ad_topslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, googletag.pubads().set("page_url", "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/present-perfect"); The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, enableSendAllBids: false, Present perfect definition: The present perfect tense is a verb tense used to express actions that occurred at a non-specific time. dfpSlots['leftslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/leftslot', [[120, 600], [160, 600]], 'ad_leftslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_leftslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'left').addService(googletag.pubads()); "authorizationFallbackResponse": { { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, The present perfect tense refers to an action or state that either occurred at an indefinite time in the past (e.g., we have talked before) or began in the past and continued to the present time (e.g., he has grown impatient over the last hour). Wellbeing or Well-Being – Which is Correct? var mapping_topslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], []).addSize([0, 550], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 50], [320, 50], [320, 100]]).build(); We use the present perfect simple to refer to events in the past but which connect to the present. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}]}]; { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, 'max': 36, If she had called the customer service department, she been able to resolve her concern. }, var pbDesktopSlots = [ userIds: [{ { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, params: { userSync: { googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ei", "present-perfect"); }, },{ // FIXME: (temporary) - send ad requests only if PlusPopup is not shown She ______ (to live) in Washington for many years. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [160, 600] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, ga('require', 'displayfeatures'); googletag.pubads().setTargeting("sfr", "cdo_dict_english"); The past perfect tense most often expresses actions in the past that finished before another action (also in the past) started. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, name: "idl_env", {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, 'buckets': [{ { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}]}]; the tense form consisting of the present tense of, Most material © 2005, 1997, 1991 by Penguin Random House LLC. Get the latest news and gain access to exclusive updates and offers. For actions of duration that occurred in the past (before now) but are of unspecified time: These examples indicate that the action is completed. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, the tense you use to talk about actions or events that happen in both the past and the present: The sentence "She has broken her leg " is in the present perfect. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '541042770', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, "sign-up": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signup?rid=READER_ID", Fill in the blanks to make the sentences into the present perfect tense. 'min': 31, dfpSlots['topslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/topslot', [[728, 90]], 'ad_topslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [160, 600] }}, Definition, Examples of English Tenses. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654174' }}, var mapping_topslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[728, 90]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); timeout: 8000, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, storage: { { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, Additionally, these actions continue on into the present and will likely extend to the future. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346698' }}, iasLog("criterion : cdo_ptl = entry-lcp"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, storage: { Our new online dictionaries for schools provide a safe and appropriate environment for children. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, iasLog("__tcfapi useractioncomplete or tcloaded ", tcData, success); He will have traveled to Europe six times by next spring. For actions that started in the past but continue to the present: These examples indicate that the action began at a time before now. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, var mapping_rightslot2 = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); dfpSlots['btmslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/btmslot', [[300, 250], 'fluid'], 'ad_btmslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_btmslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, He has worked as an administrator for years. "authorizationTimeout": 10000 googletag.pubads().setTargeting('cdo_alc_pr', pl_p.split(",")); googletag.cmd.push(function() { ga('create', 'UA-31379-3',{cookieDomain:'dictionary.cambridge.org',siteSpeedSampleRate: 10}); actions that occur in the future will continue beyond a certain point in the future. The present perfect tense is also used to express actions that started in the past but continue to the present. The present perfect tense expresses actions that happened at a time that is not specific. dfpSlots['houseslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/houseslot', [], 'ad_houseslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').setCategoryExclusion('house').addService(googletag.pubads()); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, 'min': 3.05, We use have/has + been + the -ing form of the verb. We use have/has + the -ed form of the verb. "sign-out": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signout?rid=READER_ID" var pbAdUnits = getPrebidSlots(curResolution); { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself. We have been a family of four since 1996. Subject + will have + past participle of verb, actions that will be finished at some point. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_l", "en"); { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971065', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, "loggedIn": false {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]] } }, googletag.pubads().disableInitialLoad(); { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_topslot_mobile_flex' }}, I wish I had called the customer service department. iasLog("exclusion label : lcp"); pid: '94' { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, dfpSlots['rightslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/rightslot', [[300, 250]], 'ad_rightslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_rightslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'right').addService(googletag.pubads()); { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ptl", "entry-lcp"); bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, params: { bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776336', position: 'btf' }},

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