187.1988) is a rich, opaque green. The main types of cong have a square outer section around a circular inner part, and a circular hole, though jades of a bracelet shape also display some of the characteristics of cong. The square represents the earth and a circle represents the heavens. dreamphan. History. A cong ( Chinese: 琮; pinyin: cóng; Wade–Giles: ts'ung2) is a form of ancient Chinese jade artifact. As Western Zhou ritual texts refer to 'bi' and 'cong' as offerings to heaven and earth respectively, they have become symbols of heaven and earth. Spectacular examples have been found at all the major archaeological sites. Simple masks with circular eyes and bar-shaped mouths decorate the corners. The manner of manufacturing of the CONG, as size, type of jade, the ornamentation and colour, was representing the social status of a person, family or group in the state or community. Liangzhu, China. The cong is one of the principal types of jade artefact of the Liangzhu culture (about 3000-2000 BC) around Lake Tai in Jiangsu province. Later writings speak of the cong as symbolizing the earth, while the bi represents the heavens. Jade discs have been found carefully laid on the bodies of the dead in tombs of the Hongshan culture (about 3800-2700 B.C.E. The CONG was used from the early Neolithicum until Historic Times. The number of 'bi' and 'cong' discovered throughout late Neolithic and Bronze Age tombs and burial sites is testimony to their significance in ancient rituals and ceremonies, although their meaning and function remain uncertain. Their function and meaning are completely unknown. Closed Good Friday & Christmas Day, Update from the Gallery regarding COVID-19, Read the latest visit information, including hours, Conversations through the Asian collections. Jade cong from Liangzhu culture, Neolithic Period (3300 - 2200 B.C. In form, a cong is a straight tube with a circular bore and square outer section with more or less convex sides. Read the latest visit information, including hours. Like the 'bi' disc, the 'huang' ring is also a major type of ancient ritual jade, existing in China as early as the 5th millennium BCE. The shape continued to be used in ceramic and metalwork for centuries.[3]. The outer faces are sometimes decorated with mask-like faces, which may be related to the taotie designs found on later bronze vessels. 'Bi', a disc with a central perforation, and 'cong', a roughly square cross-section with a circular bore, are two of the most familiar jade ritual objects of ancient China. Media related to Cong (vessel) at Wikimedia Commons, http://www.asia.si.edu/explore/china/jades/gallery.asp#cong, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/72376, https://www.britishmuseum.org/visiting/galleries/asia/room_33b_chinese_jade.aspx, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cong_(vessel)&oldid=950075338, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Neolithic Chinese Jades", Angus Forsyth, in, This page was last edited on 10 April 2020, at 03:12. [1] It was later also used in ceramics. Although generally considered to be a ritual object of some sort, the original function and meaning of the cong are unknown. If the hole is larger in proportion to the whole area of the disc, then the jade is generally known as a 'huang' in Chinese. Large ‘cong’ must have been known as early as the Song period, when they were copied in Longquan celadon and Guan ware. Cong. For a better experience, switch to Mobile Version », The Art Gallery of New South Wales is open. pg.73© 2003 Trustees, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Shang dynasty circa 1600 - 1100 BCE The term 'bi' has been applied to discs with small central holes. A similar piece belongs to Sir Joseph Hotung's collection, on display at the Jade Gallery in the British Museum. Jackie Menzies (Editor), The Asian Collections Art Gallery of New South Wales, 'Bronzes and Jades', Sydney, 2003, 73 (colour illus.). ), a practice which was continued by later Neolithic cultures. The example of a 'cong' is made of brownish yellow stone with brown veins and a partially glassy polish. The outer surface is divided vertically or horizontally such that the whole defines a hollow cylinder embedded in a partial rectangular block. We are observing strict physical distancing and hygiene measures to protect the health of visitors and staff and minimise the spread of COVID-19 (coronavirus). ‘The Asian Collections: Art Gallery of New South Wales’. 3300–2200 B.C.E. Cong are among the most impressive yet most enigmatic of all ancient Chinese jade artifacts. Art Gallery Rd, The Domain 2000Sydney, AustraliaInfo line 1800 679 278, See opening hours and admission Jade in burial, Liangzhu culture (CC BY-SA 2.5 ). Longquan celadon cong, 12th–13th century. Jade discs have been found carefully laid on the bodies of the dead in tombs of the Hongshan culture (about 3800-2700 B.C.E. Enigmatic in function and meaning, the cong probably signified wealth and social status. Stone rings were being made by the peoples of eastern China as early as the fifth millennium B.C.E. 289.1996) is a rich, opaque, creamy green with milkish and brown patches or veins. When was the Jade Cong created? Unlike the richly ornamented examples from the early period, most jade 'cong' from the Western Zhou dynasty were without any decoration. Carved jade Jade Cong , c. 2500 B.C.E., Liangzhu culture, 3.4 x 12.7 cm, China © 2003 Private Collection © Trustees of the British Museum Content: Liangzhu, China. China, Conversations through the Asian collections, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 25 Oct 2014–13 Mar 2016. [2], Interest in the jade shape developed during the 12th-13th century Song dynasty. ), lower Yangzi River Valley. Jade Cong, Smarthistory. A cong (Chinese: 琮; pinyin: cóng; Wade–Giles: ts'ung2) is a form of ancient Chinese jade artifact. It … The use and symbolism on the CONGS surely will regionally have been very various. Although they were made at many stages of the Neolithic and early historic period, the origin of the cong in the Neolithic cultures of south-east China has only been recognized in the last thirty years. 'Bi', a disc with a central perforation, and 'cong', a roughly square cross-section with a circular bore, are two of the most familiar jade ritual objects of ancient China. → Jade Cong, c. 2500 B.C.E., Liangzhu culture, 3.4 x 12.7 cm, ... Stone rings were being made by the peoples of eastern China as early as the fifth millennium B.C.E. A cong may most simply be described as a “squared tube with a round hole”. Two types were popular; the plain ring and the ring with a central vertical collar. They used two distinct types of ritual jade objects: a disc, later known as a bi, and a tube, later known as a cong. Jade Cong is a World of Warcraft object that can be found in The Jade Forest. There are a number of relatively tall 'cong' in museums in Asia and in the West; the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and in the major collections in the United States, … c3,300 - 2,200 BCE. The cong is said to have been a symbol of supreme power, and many of these objects have been found to be large, even, and of a symmetrical shape. In a tomb found at Sidun, Jiangsu Province, numerous cong lay in a circle around the dead, suggesting that … Where was the Jade Cong created? Jade cong. The gallery's 'huang' ring (Acc.no. Added in World of Warcraft: Mists of Pandaria. We acknowledge the traditional custodians of the Country on which the Gallery stands, the Gadigal of the Eora Nation, and recognise their continuing connection to land, waters and culture. In historical times China’s chief source of nephrite has been the riverbeds of Yarkand and Hotan in present-day Xinjiang autonomous region in northwestern China, … In the Container Objects category. Proportions vary - a cong may be squat or taller than it is wide. The earliest cong were produced by the Liangzhu culture (3400-2250 BC); later examples date mainly from the Shang and Zhou dynasties. There are two types of cong – single-section ones, as well as longer types. Zhejiang Institute of Archaeology, Hangzhou. They were usually found together in tombs. The gallery's example of a 'bi' (Acc.no. The CONG was used from the early Neolithicum until Historic Times. The Jade Cong can be found at [42.6, 15.8] on the Terrace of Ten Thunders in Jade Forest. The manner of manufacturing of the CONG, as size, type of jade, the ornamentation and colour, was representing the social status of a person, family or group in the state or community. The use and symbolism on the CONGS surely will regionally have been very various. ), a practice which was continued by later Neolithic cultures. External video. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... คำศัพท์ copy 63 Terms. The cong is one of the principal types of jade artefact of the Liangzhu culture (about 3000-2000 BC) around Lake Tai in Jiangsu province. The Cong . humanities sculpture 80 Terms. What museum is the Jade Cong found in? The earliest cong were produced by the Liangzhu culture (3400-2250 BC); later examples date mainly from the Shang and Zhou dynasties.. Interest in the jade shape developed during the 12th-13th century Song dynasty.The shape continued to be used in ceramic and metalwork for centuries.

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